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汽车软件与法律

开始于 蒂姆·韦斯科特 2017年3月14日
On Wed, 15 Mar 2017 19:23:04 -0400, Walter Banks wrote:

> On 2017-03-15 6:31 PM, Tim Wescott wrote: >>> Straying off topic, I personally believe that lack of gov regulation >>> is the single biggest weakness of the technology. Imagine what will >>> happen when a steering wheel free car is involved in a fatal crash. >>> The entire fleet will be grounded. >> Well, lack of proper care in the execution, which problem may only be >> fixed with government regulation. >> >> The entire Toyota fleet wasn't grounded even after several (possibly >> dozens of) deaths worldwide from unintended acceleration; I'm not >> sure that steer-by-wire or even autonomous vehicles will be stopped. > > It is one thing to provide non critical add on's when it is part of the > critical components with real consequences. I believe that the Toyota > problem was component failure without an appropriate fail-safe mode even > though there was testimony that given the following 24 conditions or so > it could have been software. Another example of this type of failure is > the GM ignition switches. >
There was a lawsuit, and a code review by an independent group documented cases where the right combination of normal inputs would cause the throttle pedal position calculation task to die, which in turn would hold the throttle at some high value until the brakes were entirely let off and then reapplied. They actually replicated the bug on cars on dynos. Search on "barr" and "toyota" and you'll find lots of material. http://www.safetyresearch.net/Library/BarrSlides_FINAL_SCRUBBED.pdf -- Tim Wescott Wescott Design Services http://www.wescottdesign.com I'm looking for work -- see my website!
Am 15.03.2017 um 18:32 schrieb Tim Wescott:
> On Wed, 15 Mar 2017 17:12:28 +0000, HT-Lab wrote: >> I assume with law you mean if this is the standard that all automotive >> suppliers/manufacturers tried to adhere to (similar to DO-254 for the >> avionics market), I so then I believe this is indeed the case. >> >> However, I have no experience with this standard, I just play with >> FPGA's day in day out... > > Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any country or > other polity that require companies manufacturing or selling automobiles > to adhere to the standard before they can legally sell their wares? Is > there anywhere in the world where not following ISO 26262 will have a cop > or a government lawyer knocking on your door?
Would it be law that works that way, or would it be a certification agency? As I understand, technology has to fulfill certain systems requirements (for a car, things like "can steer", "can brake", "engine warning light"), and there's recognized state-of-the-art how you do that. The law doesn't say your steering column has to work mechanically, but everyone agrees that's a good way to do it. And if you do it differently, you have to prove to achieve equivalent safety.
> Is there anywhere in the world where, before you can offer a > newly-designed car for sale, you have to show documentation that > proves that you've followed the standard, or regulations based on the > standard?
In Germany, you need a type approval to sell cars to customers (alternatively, customers would have to get that approval themselves). You probably don't get a type approval for a steering column programmed in Visual Basic because you cannot prove its safety. On the other hand, do you really want to build a car, or are you building components? In that case, the automakers' rules are not less important than laws. Laws don't care about quiescent current; the automaker does. Laws don't care about MISRA or V-model; the automaker does. Stefan
On Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:09:29 +0100, Stefan Reuther wrote:

> Am 15.03.2017 um 18:32 schrieb Tim Wescott: >> On Wed, 15 Mar 2017 17:12:28 +0000, HT-Lab wrote: >>> I assume with law you mean if this is the standard that all automotive >>> suppliers/manufacturers tried to adhere to (similar to DO-254 for the >>> avionics market), I so then I believe this is indeed the case. >>> >>> However, I have no experience with this standard, I just play with >>> FPGA's day in day out... >> >> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any country >> or other polity that require companies manufacturing or selling >> automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can legally sell >> their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not following ISO >> 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking on your door? > > Would it be law that works that way, or would it be a certification > agency? > > As I understand, technology has to fulfill certain systems requirements > (for a car, things like "can steer", "can brake", "engine warning > light"), and there's recognized state-of-the-art how you do that. The > law doesn't say your steering column has to work mechanically, but > everyone agrees that's a good way to do it. And if you do it > differently, you have to prove to achieve equivalent safety.
In order for a certification agency to have the authority to do such, there has to be a law that gives it that power. So, law. Based on what little I know for sure, automotive safety certification is based on end-product black-box testing. Such testing may make sense when everything is mechanical and all systems are (at least relatively) simple and decoupled, but it's not necessarily sufficient when there's CPUs in the mix. -- Tim Wescott Control systems, embedded software and circuit design I'm looking for work! See my website if you're interested http://www.wescottdesign.com
蒂姆·韦斯科特 wrote:
> AFAIK there are no laws that regulate automotive software, > specifically -- just threats of lawsuits if a car kills someone, and > systems-level requirements that cover cases like Volkwagen and their > dirty diesels. > > Am I right? Or are there safety (or other) regulations that extend > their tentacles specifically into automotive software, the way DO-128 > does in avionics, and the various IEC standards do with medical > devices? >
Might be worth googling "micheal barr group". Emphasis "might"; I still get spam from 'em now and again. There isn't any that I am aware of. It's all self-regulation. There is MISRA, which is fine as far as it goes. Lawsuits may stand as legal precedent, but a settlement can't be concluded - even legally - as a recognition that a defect was a cause. I don't know that either D0-128 or medical device standards actually do that much to enforce any sort of defect rate. At least in the Toyota cases, the logic was more about process than product. Throw in self-driving cars and abandon all hope. I don't think those can actually be verified nor validated. They'll advance one crash at a time. -- Les Cargill
John Speth wrote:
>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any >> country or other polity that require companies manufacturing or >> selling automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can >> legally sell their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not >> following ISO 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking >> on your door? Is there anywhere in the world where, before you can >> offer a newly-designed car for sale, you have to show documentation >> that proves that you've followed the standard, or regulations based >> on the standard? > > Here's a cynical response: No, no, and no; not until somebody is > killed. > > Straying off topic, I personally believe that lack of gov regulation > is the single biggest weakness of the technology. Imagine what will > happen when a steering wheel free car is involved in a fatal crash. > The entire fleet will be grounded. >
There have been fatalities already when the car was on "autopilot".
> JJS
-- Les Cargill
Am 16.03.2017 um 16:16 schrieb Tim Wescott:
> On Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:09:29 +0100, Stefan Reuther wrote: >>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any country >>> or other polity that require companies manufacturing or selling >>> automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can legally sell >>> their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not following ISO >>> 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking on your door? >> >> Would it be law that works that way, or would it be a certification >> agency? >> >> As I understand, technology has to fulfill certain systems requirements >> (for a car, things like "can steer", "can brake", "engine warning >> light"), and there's recognized state-of-the-art how you do that. The >> law doesn't say your steering column has to work mechanically, but >> everyone agrees that's a good way to do it. And if you do it >> differently, you have to prove to achieve equivalent safety. > > In order for a certification agency to have the authority to do such, > there has to be a law that gives it that power. So, law.
My point is that the law doesn't say "the brake controller has to be written in programming language X using coding standard Y and development process Z", it just has to be "state-of-the-art". That state-of-the-art is defined by ISO standards and industry rules. If you now want to deviate from that standard, you got to prove equivalent safety. Or get an industry consortium behind you that makes this the new standard. But you don't need to, nor can you, change the law to allow a Visual Basic brake controller. Stefan
On 17/03/17 10:54, Les Cargill wrote:
> John Speth wrote: >>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any >>> country or other polity that require companies manufacturing or >>> selling automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can >>> legally sell their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not >>> following ISO 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking >>> on your door? Is there anywhere in the world where, before you can >>> offer a newly-designed car for sale, you have to show documentation >>> that proves that you've followed the standard, or regulations based >>> on the standard? >> >> Here's a cynical response: No, no, and no; not until somebody is >> killed. >> >> Straying off topic, I personally believe that lack of gov regulation >> is the single biggest weakness of the technology. Imagine what will >> happen when a steering wheel free car is involved in a fatal crash. >> The entire fleet will be grounded. >> > > There have been fatalities already when the car was on "autopilot".
But now /deliberation/ and multiple parties are involved in the decision. Philosophy can be useful. In this case, should you /design/ the car so that it chooses to kill the driver (by swerving into a brick wall) in preference to killing 10 pedestrians? Fun, fun, fun.
汤姆·加德纳 wrote:
> On 17/03/17 10:54, Les Cargill wrote: >> John Speth wrote: >>>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any >>>> country or other polity that require companies manufacturing or >>>> selling automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can >>>> legally sell their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not >>>> following ISO 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking >>>> on your door? Is there anywhere in the world where, before you can >>>> offer a newly-designed car for sale, you have to show documentation >>>> that proves that you've followed the standard, or regulations based >>>> on the standard? >>> >>> Here's a cynical response: No, no, and no; not until somebody is >>> killed. >>> >>> Straying off topic, I personally believe that lack of gov regulation >>> is the single biggest weakness of the technology. Imagine what will >>> happen when a steering wheel free car is involved in a fatal crash. >>> The entire fleet will be grounded. >>> >> >> There have been fatalities already when the car was on "autopilot". > > But now /deliberation/ and multiple parties are > involved in the decision. > > Philosophy can be useful. In this case, should > you /design/ the car so that it chooses to kill > the driver (by swerving into a brick wall) in > preference to killing 10 pedestrians? > > Fun, fun, fun. >
The trolley problem isn't that fun :) No, you assign agency to the driver with the automation as subcontractor and shrug if it goes wrong. All the cases I know about there was a strong probability that a human driver would have made the same error. In effect, the (non)drivers are test pilots. -- Les Cargill
斯蒂芬·瑞瑟(Stefan Reuther) wrote:
> Am 16.03.2017 um 16:16 schrieb Tim Wescott: >> On Thu, 16 Mar 2017 11:09:29 +0100, Stefan Reuther wrote: >>>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any >>>> country or other polity that require companies manufacturing or >>>> selling automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can >>>> legally sell their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where >>>> not following ISO 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer >>>> knocking on your door? >>> >>> Would it be law that works that way, or would it be a >>> certification agency? >>> >>> As I understand, technology has to fulfill certain systems >>> requirements (for a car, things like "can steer", "can brake", >>> "engine warning light"), and there's recognized state-of-the-art >>> how you do that. The law doesn't say your steering column has to >>> work mechanically, but everyone agrees that's a good way to do >>> it. And if you do it differently, you have to prove to achieve >>> equivalent safety. >> >> In order for a certification agency to have the authority to do >> such, there has to be a law that gives it that power. So, law. > > My point is that the law doesn't say "the brake controller has to be > written in programming language X using coding standard Y and > development process Z", it just has to be "state-of-the-art". That > state-of-the-art is defined by ISO standards and industry rules. If > you now want to deviate from that standard, you got to prove > equivalent safety. Or get an industry consortium behind you that > makes this the new standard. But you don't need to, nor can you, > change the law to allow a Visual Basic brake controller. > > > Stefan >
Unless I'm out of date ( and I am ) none of these things much touch on *actual* hi-rel and improved-provability techniques. Most, if not all of the ISO standards have to do with chains of documentation. -- Les Cargill
On 17/03/17 12:08, Les Cargill wrote:
> Tom Gardner wrote: >> On 17/03/17 10:54, Les Cargill wrote: >>> John Speth wrote: >>>>> Actually by "law" I mean "law". Are there regulations in any >>>>> country or other polity that require companies manufacturing or >>>>> selling automobiles to adhere to the standard before they can >>>>> legally sell their wares? Is there anywhere in the world where not >>>>> following ISO 26262 will have a cop or a government lawyer knocking >>>>> on your door? Is there anywhere in the world where, before you can >>>>> offer a newly-designed car for sale, you have to show documentation >>>>> that proves that you've followed the standard, or regulations based >>>>> on the standard? >>>> >>>> Here's a cynical response: No, no, and no; not until somebody is >>>> killed. >>>> >>>> Straying off topic, I personally believe that lack of gov regulation >>>> is the single biggest weakness of the technology. Imagine what will >>>> happen when a steering wheel free car is involved in a fatal crash. >>>> The entire fleet will be grounded. >>>> >>> >>> There have been fatalities already when the car was on "autopilot". >> >> But now /deliberation/ and multiple parties are >> involved in the decision. >> >> Philosophy can be useful. In this case, should >> you /design/ the car so that it chooses to kill >> the driver (by swerving into a brick wall) in >> preference to killing 10 pedestrians? >> >> Fun, fun, fun. >> > > The trolley problem isn't that fun :) > > No, you assign agency to the driver with the automation > as subcontractor and shrug if it goes wrong. All > the cases I know about there was a strong probability > that a human driver would have made the same error. > > In effect, the (non)drivers are test pilots.
What are these "drivers" of which you speak?